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Some legends include flight , invisibility , shapeshifting , the ability to "split" into multiple bodies bunshin , the summoning of animals kuchiyose , and control over the five classical elements.
These fabulous notions have stemmed from popular imagination regarding the ninja's mysterious status, as well as romantic ideas found in later Japanese art of the Edo period.
Magical powers were sometimes rooted in the ninja's own efforts to disseminate fanciful information. Perceived control over the elements may be grounded in real tactics, which were categorized by association with forces of nature.
For example, the practice of starting fires in order to cover a ninja's trail falls under katon-no-jutsu "fire techniques". The ninja's adaption of kites in espionage and warfare is another subject of legends.
Accounts exist of ninja being lifted into the air by kites, where they flew over hostile terrain and descended into, or dropped bombs on enemy territory.
Kuji-kiri is an esoteric practice which, when performed with an array of hand "seals" kuji-in , was meant to allow the ninja to enact superhuman feats.
The kuji "nine characters" is a concept originating from Daoism , where it was a string of nine words used in charms and incantations. Intended effects range from physical and mental concentration, to more incredible claims about rendering an opponent immobile, or even the casting of magical spells.
Many famous people in Japanese history have been associated or identified as ninja, but their status as ninja are difficult to prove and may be the product of later imagination.
Rumors surrounding famous warriors, such as Kusunoki Masashige or Minamoto no Yoshitsune sometimes describe them as ninja, but there is little evidence for these claims.
The image of the ninja entered popular culture in the Edo period , when folktales and plays about ninja were conceived. Stories about the ninja are usually based on historical figures.
Fictional figures such as Sarutobi Sasuke would eventually make their way into comics and television, where they have come to enjoy a culture hero status outside their original mediums.
From ancient Japan to the modern world media, popular depictions range from the realistic to the fantastically exaggerated, both fundamentally and aesthetically.
Shikomizue , a cane sword. Chainmail shirt Kusari katabira. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of covert agent or mercenary in feudal Japan.
Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see Ninja disambiguation and Shinobi disambiguation. Main article: Oniwaban. Main article: Foreign ninja.
See also: Ninja-Russia relations and Ninja-Myanmar relations. Main article: Ninja in popular culture. Kaginawa , iron climbing hook.
Makibishi , iron caltrops. Bo-shuriken , throwing darts. Bo-shuriken , with linen flights. Chigiriki , chain and weight weapons.
Kusarigama , a chain and sickle. Manriki , a chain weapon. Japan portal. Ninja Ad Osprey Publishing. Archived from the original on 6 May Retrieved 1 October Washington, D.
Archived from the original on 20 August Retrieved 20 August AFP, Yahoo! Retrieved 26 June Telangana Today.
Archived from the original on 26 June Ninja AD — Oxford: Osprey Publishing. Archived from the original on 14 February Fujibayashi, Masatake; Nakajima, Atsumi.
Fujita, Seiko. Saigo no Ninja Dorondoron. Fukai, Masaumi. Hokinoichi, Hanawa. Ishikawa, Masatomo. Shinobi no sato no kiroku.
Mol, Serge Nawa, Yumio. Shinobi no buki. Ninjutsu: sono rekishi to ninja. Turnbull, Stephen Ninja: Unmasking the Myth.
Barnsley, S. Yorkshire, UK: Frontline Books. Watatani, Kiyoshi. Tokyo: Akita Shoten. Yamaguchi, Masayuki. Ninja no seikatsu.
MECHANICA Es N Ninja Гber 2000 Videoslots nun Festzelte Cannstatter Wasen die ersten.
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At the bottom was the genin "lower person" , field agents drawn from the lower class and assigned to carry out actual missions.
From these regions, villages devoted to the training of ninja first appeared. There was a retainer of the family of Kawai Aki-no-kami of Iga, of pre-eminent skill in shinobi , and consequently for generations the name of people from Iga became established.
Likewise, a supplement to the Nochi Kagami , a record of the Ashikaga shogunate , confirms the same Iga origin:.
Since then successive generations of Iga men have been admired. This is the origin of the fame of the men of Iga. A distinction is to be made between the ninja from these areas, and commoners or samurai hired as spies or mercenaries.
They were tasked to raid an outpost of the Imagawa clan. Miura Yoemon, a ninja in Tokugawa's service, recruited shinobi from the Iga region, and sent 10 ninja into Osaka Castle in an effort to foster antagonism between enemy commanders.
A final but detailed record of ninja employed in open warfare occurred during the Shimabara Rebellion — Suspecting that the castle's supplies might be running low, the siege commander Matsudaira Nobutsuna ordered a raid on the castle's provisions.
Under the cloak of darkness, ninja disguised as defenders infiltrated the castle, capturing a banner of the Christian cross.
We dispersed spies who were prepared to die inside Hara castle. As the siege went on, the extreme shortage of food later reduced the defenders to eating moss and grass.
With the fall of Hara Castle , the Shimabara Rebellion came to an end, and Christianity in Japan was forced underground.
After Shimabara rebellion, there was almost no major wars or battles until bakumatsu era. For their living, ninja had to be employed by each Han or simply change their jobs.
Many lords still hired ninja not for battle but as bodyguards or spy. Their duties includes undercover detective of other hans,guarding of Daimyo, and fire patrol.
Many former ninja were employed as security guard by Tokugawa Shogunate , though the role of espionage was transferred newly crated organizations such as Onmitsu and Oniwaban.
A graduate master course opened in It is located in Iga now Mie Prefecture. There are approximately 3 student enrollments per year.
Students must pass an admission test about Japanese history and be able to read historical ninja documents.
In , the 45 year old Genichi Mitsuhashi was the first student to graduate from the master course of ninja studies at Mie University.
For 2 years he studied historical records and the traditions of the martial art. Similar to the original ninja, by day he was a farmer and grew vegetables while he did ninja studies and trained martial arts in the afternoon.
In the early 18th century, shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune founded the oniwaban "garden keepers" , an intelligence agency and secret service.
However, there is no written link between the earlier shinobi and the later oniwaban. They travelled in disguise to other territories to judge the situation of the enemy, they would inveigle their way into the midst of the enemy to discover gaps, and enter enemy castles to set them on fire, and carried out assassinations, arriving in secret.
Espionage was the chief role of the ninja. With the aid of disguises, the ninja gathered information on enemy terrain and building specifications, as well as obtaining passwords and communiques.
The aforementioned supplement to the Nochi Kagami briefly describes the ninja's role in espionage:.
They observed hidden things, and were taken as being friends. Arson was the primary form of sabotage practiced by the ninja, who targeted castles and camps.
This morning, the sixth day of the 11th month of Tenbun 10 , the Iga- shu entered Kasagi castle in secret and set fire to a few of the priests' quarters.
They also set fire to outbuildings in various places inside the San-no-maru. They captured the ichi-no-maru inner bailey and the ni-no-maru second bailey.
In , Rokkaku Yoshikata employed a team of ninja to set fire to Sawayama Castle. In a technique dubbed bakemono-jutsu "ghost technique" , his men stole a lantern bearing the enemy's family crest mon , and proceeded to make replicas with the same mon.
By wielding these lanterns, they were allowed to enter the castle without a fight. Once inside, the ninja set fire to the castle, and Yoshitaka's army would later emerge victorious.
In , commanders acting under Kizawa Nagamasa hired three Iga ninja of genin rank to assist the conquest of a fortress in Maibara.
Rokkaku Yoshitaka, the same man who had hired Iga ninja just years earlier, was the fortress holder—and target of attack. The Asai Sandaiki writes of their plans: "We employed shinobi-no-mono of Iga They were contracted to set fire to the castle".
When the fire attack did not begin as scheduled, the Iga men told the commanders, who were not from the region, that they could not possibly understand the tactics of the shinobi.
They then threatened to abandon the operation if they were not allowed to act on their own strategy. The fire was eventually set, allowing Nagamasa's army to capture the fortress in a chaotic rush.
The best-known cases of assassination attempts involve famous historical figures. Deaths of famous persons have sometimes been attributed to assassination by ninja, but the secretive natures of these scenarios have made them difficult to prove.
The warlord Oda Nobunaga 's notorious reputation led to several attempts on his life. Using two arquebuses , he fired two consecutive shots at Nobunaga, but was unable to inflict mortal injury through Nobunaga's armor.
However, this also ended in failure, and Manabe was forced to commit suicide, after which his body was openly displayed in public.
The shots flew wide of Nobunaga, however, and instead killed seven of his surrounding companions. Hiding in the shadow of a tree, he avoided being seen under the moonlight, and later concealed himself in a hole he had prepared beforehand, thus escaping capture.
An assassination attempt on Toyotomi Hideyoshi was also thwarted. He was "smoked out" of his hiding place by another ninja working for Hideyoshi, who apparently used a sort of primitive " flamethrower ".
The legend credits his death to an assassin who is said to have hidden in Kenshin's lavatory, and fatally injured Kenshin by thrusting a blade or spear into his anus.
In battle, the ninja were also used to cause confusion amongst the enemy. Within Hataya castle there was a glorious shinobi whose skill was renowned, and one night he entered the enemy camp secretly.
He took the flag from Naoe Kanetsugu's guard A variety of countermeasures were taken to prevent the activities of the ninja.
Precautions were often taken against assassinations, such as weapons concealed in the lavatory, or under a removable floorboard.
Japanese castles were designed to be difficult to navigate, with winding routes leading to the inner compound. Blind spots and holes in walls provided constant surveillance of these labyrinthine paths, as exemplified in Himeji Castle.
Some view ninjutsu as evidence that ninja were not simple mercenaries because texts contained not only information on combat training, but also information about daily needs, which even included mining techniques.
The first specialized training began in the midth century, when certain samurai families started to focus on covert warfare, including espionage and assassination.
Outside the expected martial art disciplines, a youth studied survival and scouting techniques, as well as information regarding poisons and explosives.
Here the ninja reportedly gave Naomasa a "black medicine" meant to stop bleeding. Modern schools that claim to train ninjutsu arose from the s, including that of Masaaki Hatsumi Bujinkan , Stephen K.
The lineage and authenticity of these schools are a matter of controversy. The ninja did not always work alone. Teamwork techniques exist: For example, in order to scale a wall, a group of ninja may carry each other on their backs, or provide a human platform to assist an individual in reaching greater heights.
The account also gives a case of deception, where the attackers dressed in the same clothes as the defenders, causing much confusion.
This tactic was used again later on as a method of crowd dispersal. Most ninjutsu techniques recorded in scrolls and manuals revolve around ways to avoid detection, and methods of escape.
Some examples are:. The use of disguises is common and well documented. Shinobi-monomi were people used in secret ways, and their duties were to go into the mountains and disguise themselves as firewood gatherers to discover and acquire the news about an enemy's territory A mountain ascetic yamabushi attire facilitated travel, as they were common and could travel freely between political boundaries.
Ninja utilized a large variety of tools and weaponry, some of which were commonly known, but others were more specialized.
Most were tools used in the infiltration of castles. A wide range of specialized equipment is described and illustrated in the 17th-century Bansenshukai ,  including climbing equipment, extending spears,  rocket -propelled arrows,  and small collapsible boats.
The popular notion of black clothing is likely rooted in artistic convention; early drawings of ninja showed them dressed in black in order to portray a sense of invisibility.
Clothing used was similar to that of the samurai , but loose garments such as leggings were tucked into trousers or secured with belts.
The tenugui , a piece of cloth also used in martial arts, had many functions. It could be used to cover the face, form a belt, or assist in climbing.
The historicity of armor specifically made for ninja cannot be ascertained. While pieces of light armor purportedly worn by ninja exist and date to the right time, there is no hard evidence of their use in ninja operations.
Depictions of famous persons later deemed ninja often show them in samurai armor. There were lightweight concealable types of armour made with kusari chain armour and small armor plates such as karuta that could have been worn by ninja including katabira jackets made with armour hidden between layers of cloth.
Shin and arm guards, along with metal-reinforced hoods are also speculated to make up the ninja's armor. Tools used for infiltration and espionage are some of the most abundant artifacts related to the ninja.
Ropes and grappling hooks were common, and were tied to the belt. The kunai was a heavy pointed tool, possibly derived from the Japanese masonry trowel , which it closely resembles.
Although it is often portrayed in popular culture as a weapon, the kunai was primarily used for gouging holes in walls. The mizugumo was a set of wooden shoes supposedly allowing the ninja to walk on water.
The word mizugumo is derived from the native name for the Japanese water spider Argyroneta aquatica japonica. The mizugumo was featured on the show MythBusters , where it was demonstrated unfit for walking on water.
The ukidari , a similar footwear for walking on water, also existed in the form of a flat round bucket , but was probably quite unstable. Despite the large array of tools available to the ninja, the Bansenshukai warns one not to be overburdened with equipment, stating "a successful ninja is one who uses but one tool for multiple tasks".
Although shorter swords and daggers were used, the katana was probably the ninja's weapon of choice, and was sometimes carried on the back.
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